Monday, 15 August 2016

The Kalachuri Rajavamsa

                                The  Kalachuri King Samrat Bijjala II



Bijjala II (1130–1167 CE) Kannada: ಬಿಜ್ಜಳ II was the Very Powerful and most famous of the southern Royal Kalachuri King.   
Bijjala II Royal Kalachuri scion The first prominent ruler of the Kalachuris was Uchita, who was followed by Asaga, Kannam and Kiriyasaga. However under Bijjala I and his son Kannama, the Kalachuris began to wield considerable political power. However Kannama's son Jogama became an influential feudatory of the Chalukya Vikramaditya VI, who was matrimonially connected to the Kalachuri chief. This trend continued right upto the reign of Jogama's son and successor, Permadi. Even though he was a Mahamandalesvara (feudal lord) he enjoyed considerable clout in the royal circles.
Brahma,the creator of the universe

Permadi’s son Bijjala II (1130-1167 A.D) succeeded his father as the Mahamandalesvara. He realised that under Vikramaditya's successors the Chalukya empire was growing weaker. This encouraged him to declare his independence. The Chikkalagi inscription refers to Bijjala II as "Mahabhujabalachakravarti (literally: the sovereign with tremendous power in his arms).Some historians identify several Kalachuri ruling families in Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, Rajpur (eastern Gujarat) regions of central India. Dr. P. B. Desai, the renowned historian opines that the Kalachuris did not originally belong to Karnataka. On the contrary they had migrated from central India. There they were known as Katachuris, and they ruled over an empire spanning Malwa, Gujarat, Konkan and Maharashtra. However, one of its rulers, Buddharaja, experienced a crushing defeat at hands of the Chalukya king Mangalesa, which pushed this dynasty into oblivion.


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    Royal emblem of Kalachurya 
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Bijjala/Bijjaladeva was  kalachuri clan chief.This clan was also called as Haihayas, were ancient people. These people were ruling in Eastern Malwa and the neighboring region around 8th century AD. Several branches of this family had settled in different parts of Northern India. The most famous king of this clan was Kokalla - I, who was an imperial power below modern day Madhya Pradesh. He had defeated all major kings in that era around 10th century AD. Bijjala was a federatory chief of the Kalachuri clan. He defeated Jayasimha in 1156 AD and other federatory chiefs who had revolted. He fought successfully with the Cholas, Gangas of Kalinga, the clan Inkyas and the other branch of Kalachuris of Tripuri. It is also said for a very short period he conquered Anga, Vanga, Magadha, Nepala, Turushka and Simhala. By 1157 AD Bijjala assumed imperial titles and a era may be said to have started as Kalachuri revolution now ran its course and Bijjala setup his rule in Chalukya capital Kalyani. Kalyani now is know as Basava kalyan on Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh border . The nearest town is Bidar.

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Hero stone with 1160 CE Old Kannada inscription from the rule of Kalachuri King Bijjala in the Kedareshvara temple at Balligavi, Shimoga district, Karnataka state
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Bijjala was patronising Jainism, Kolanpaka –80 KM from Hyderabad, (AP) INDIA, was said to be the alternate capital of the Bijjula. This was a very rich city covering an area of fifty Square Kilometers and a nerve center of Jainism, which had imperial patronage of the King/Emperor Bijjaladeva.It is said that  Bijjaladva was known to the Jains as King Kousikadu.  Bijjula’s Prime Minister Basavaraja, a Brahmin and a great devotee of Lord Shiva, the founder of Lingayat sect was patronising Veera Sivaism. Bijjala married Akkamahadevi, the beautiful daughter of Basavaraja and over a period of time, Basavaraja became very powerful and used most of the State's finances to promote and propagate Veera Sivaism, when patronage of Jainism was at it’s peak. There seems to be a confusion about the version of Jain temples and Libraries were destroyed in the battle with Veera Shivam followers which led to the destruction of the magnificent city..... Kolampaku.

Queen Akkamahadevi was the principal Queen of Bijjaladeva. She is the daughter of Veera Shivam devotee and founder Basavaraja. Akkamadevi daughter of ordinary Brahmin devotee of Veera Shivam residing in a village near Mysore. The Jain king Kousigadu/Bijjala saw her and was impressed with her devotion, beauty and intelligence and decided to make her his Queen. He send in his Minister to propose to her parents , knowing very well her parents reluctance to marry their daughter to the King ,who is patronising Jainism. Akkamahadevi knew that King Bijjala  had already decided to marry her forcibly, if her parents reject the proposal had then convinced her parents and went to Kalyani, the imperial capital Of Bijjala along with her parents in a convoy sent by the King Bijjala for the marriage. It is believed that in some course of time she made king agree to propagate Verra Shivam and in that process her father Basavaraja, who was already a very influential  power in the palace became the all powerful Prime Minister. It is believed that the Quuen Akkamahadevi was a very pious lady and spend most of her time in Daiva Puja chanting Mallikarjuna in Anubhava Mandapam in Kalyani City. Later in her life Queen Akkamahadevi is said to have meditated in a cave near Srisailum, Mallikarjuna Swamy Temple and got emerged into Srisailum Mallikarjuna Swamy. Even today Akkamahadevi writings were popular as Shiva Saranams in Karnataka State. There is a statue of her in Srisailum, which receives pujas of the devotees.

During the reign of Bijjala, his Prime Minister Basavaraja tried to spread and strengthen the base of siviate sect among the masses with state exchequer, which also had the Emperor’s blessing because of it’s Reformist Movement (Zeal for reforms like no caste system, all devotee are alike, special solicitude for the emancipation of women from the thralldom of rigid customs, etc) and was instrumental in popularising Siva worship and built temples from Orissa (cuttack) to Alampur in Andhra Pradesh. The famous Alampur temples were rebuilt during this reign and was the man who installed one crore-shiva lingams (Coti Lingalu) in Alampur (AP). This led to a prolonged and fierce battle between followers of Jainism and Siviates, which soon spread to all the regions of Andhra, Karnataka and Maharashtra. The Prime Minster’s followers i.e. the Siviates were victorious after massacring the followers of Jainism and destroying great number of Jain temples, Libraries and Jain Manuscripts. It is said that Bijjala was so disappointed by these events and had retired to the forest, in favour of his son 
Someswara, who came to the throne in 1168 AD.

Someswara is credited with many victories including those against the Cholas, Gangas and Chaulukyas.During his reign Veera Siviasm flourished in full glory and grandeur, giving it’s eight-fold path to eradicate the miseries of it ‘s followers in particular and people in general. The Epic called BASAVAPURANAM was written during this period. This philosophy attracted the masses, who accepted it with open arms and thus the capital city of Bijjula, Kalyani became the nerve center of Veera sivaism.


Someswara died in 1177 AD and his brother Sankana who succeeded him conquered many counties from Bengal to Ceylon. During this period there was lot of confusion about the Imperial Religion and the conflict again broke between Siviates, Jains and Vishanavites, supported by the Commander-in-chief of Army.

Ahavamalla succeeded Sankana in 1180 AD. He was great devotee of Lord SIVA. He gave all the taxes collected from Tumbala, Gogguru and Alampur Provenances in present day Mahabubnagar and Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh (Andhra Pradesh,India) to the presiding Deity of Srisalum i.e. Mallikarjuna Swamy Devasthanam (Endowment Trust) i.e. Lord Siva. The inscription to this effect is in Sanskrit and earliest Telugu at Srisalum temple. Alampur was called Brahmapuri, which was a very important educational center called Brahamapuri Vidhyapeetam. This center received rewards, grants and gifts from various subsequent kings, queens and Emperors. The famous pundits from this center are Trilochanamuninadha and Ekantadesakadi.Details about this are available in English and Telugu books sold by the Srisalum Devasthanam Board at Srisalum Temple. He subsequently lost large portion of Deccan to Chalukya King Taila-III ' s Son Someswara IV.

Ahavamalla still continued to rule small principality and was succeeded by younger brother Singhana in 1183 AD, who later submitted to Chalukyas as his general Barmideva or Brahma deserted and went over to the service of Someswara IV, thus putting an end to Kalachuri power in 1190 AD. After 1190AD,the Empire of Kalayani split into three parts, namely the kingdom of Devagiri founded by Yadavas, the Kingdom of Warangal, governed by Kakatiyas and the Kingdom of Dorasamudra ruled by the Hoysalas.


The Kalachuri Clan (Royal Kalyani Chalukyas)
·         Uchita
·         Asaga
·         Kannam
·         Kiriyasaga
·         Bijjala I
·         Kannama
·         Jogama
·         Permadi
·         Bijjala II (1130–1167): proclaimed independence in 1162.
·         Sovideva (1168–1176)
·         Mallugi --> overthrown by brother Sankama
·         Sankama (1176–1180)
·         Ahavamalla (1180–1183)
·         Singhana (1183–1184)


Proofs :

1.The greate barber rulers In India (The Kalachuris), written by T.M Dhanraj 

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