Thursday, 21 July 2016

Samrat Mahapadma Nanda - The first king of Akhila Bharata khanda

Nanda Rajavamsa History

Samrat Mahapadma Nanda




Mahapadma Nanda  Nai(barber) by caste established The Nanda Dynasty or Nanda Empire in the territory of Magadha.Nanda Empire was one of the famous Ancient Indian Dynasties. It ruled in India at the time of 4th and 5th century BC. During the peak of its glory, the Nanda Dynasty had its stretch from Punjab to the west to Bengal to the east, and in the distant south upto the Vindhya Mountain Range.

He conquered the dynasties of "Panchalas, Aikshvakus, Haihayas, Kasis, Asmaka, Kalinga, Maithilas, Kuru, and Sursenas and added these provinces to Magadha. Mahapadma Nanda is also refered as Smarat (King with wide territory and acceptance) Ugrasena( Terribly strong) orMahapadmapati ( Most magnanimous Conqueror).

Mahapadma Nanda Was the first king of the Nanda dynasty. He was  also the first Shudra king of Magadha belonging to barber  sub caste of Hindu Religion classification. Nanda Dynasty was established after Pradyota dynasty. Since Sisunga earlier a minister to the last Pradyota dynasty king and people made him the king.  Sisunga  belonged to the line of Bimbisara, so this dynesty is also called as Sisunga Dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda  has been described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas". He  was the son of Mahanandin by Barber caste.
                                                      

The Indologist F. E. Pargiter dated Nanda's coronation to 382 BCE, and R. K. Mookerji dated it to  be 364 BCE.Mahapadma Nanda established the first greatest North Indian empire having its power centre in Maghada. He vanquished the old dynasties of North by, dethroning all kings.The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BCMahapadma Nanda is recognized as  most powerful  (Chhakervarti samarat) king of the entire land. The collapse of the old Kshatriya dynasties under the rigorous power politics of Mahapadma Nanda, who is explicitly denigrated as the son of a Shudra, and he extended   support to followers of non-Vedic philosophies. But the Vedis philosophers described the rise of Mahapadma Nanda as a mark of Kali Yuga because of their religious hate and narrow mindlessness. He was the ruler of the Nanda dynasty for all but 12 years of the dynasty's 100 years Rule. He is reported to have enjoyed his life span of 88 years.

Mahapadma Nanda, defeated the Panchalas . Panchalas was an ancient region of northern India, which corresponds to the geographical area around the Ganges River and Yamuna River, the upper Gangetic plain in particular. This would encompass the modern-day states of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh , Kasis, Haihayas(Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan), Kalingas (central-easternIndia, which comprised most of the modern state of Odisha, as well as the Andhra region of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh), Asmakas, Kurus, Maithilas, Surasenas and the Vitihotras; to name a few. Due to his ruling qualities and military power he expanded his territory south of the Deccan plains too.

                                             The Nandas are also described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. The Nanda Kings made the collection of taxes methodical, by regularly appointed officials. They had a strong administrative system. Their treasury was continuously supplemented to match the government expenditure. Nandas had large stock of wealth’s. The Nanda kings also built canals and in land water ways to establish an effective irrigation system by digging new canals. 

                                             On this, basis of a typically crop cultivation-oriented agriculture developed. Agriculture infrastructure was developed in a big way. The possibility of an imperial structure based on an essentially agrarian economy began to take firm roots in the Indian mind set.  This encouraged economy to develop on sound footing. This made their subjects prosperous in all fields of life.  

                   They are reported to have developed standered weighing and measuring mechanism. The people enjoyed prosperous life conditions with out any danger from the out side invaders. Even the Great conqueror Alexander the Great (356 –323 BCE), did not dare to cross over present day Beas river to intrude into Nanda kingdom territory when he heard of  the military might stories from the natives. The King Porus had also put up a brave fight against the Alexander army. But when intruding army heard of even mightier Nanda King’s army, they refused to go across Beas river. 
                                  So the bravest barber Chakervarti   Smart  forced the marching Alexander army  stop from further  march so his loot and massacre of Indian masses was put to stop.Alexander’s dreams of conquering whole of India were dashed to ground by the Nanda smarat Dhana Nanda. 

                                      The Nanda King inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. To this purpose they built up a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 war chariots and 3,000 war elephants (at the lowest estimates). According to Plutarch, the Greek biographer the size of the Nanda army was even larger, numbering 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 war chariots, and 6,000 war elephants (294,000 troops ).  

                     Since the  military might of Nandas had spread far and wide so no king including the  intruder Alexander could dare to  invade Nanda territory. There for the Nandas never had the opportunity to see their army up against  even AlexanderNandas proved that preparedness for war is preparedness for peace and hormony. Alexander invaded India at the time of Dhana Nanda, and confined his campaign up to the plains ofPunjab. Alexander’s forces were, frightened by the prospect of facing a militarily powerful enemy and so mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern day Beas River) refusing to march any further. This was the might of the untouchable kings. But alas their religious peers reduced them to be non fighting persons, so the country was enslaved for centuries

                                          The people enjoyed freedom of following the religion of their faith with out any fear. The peoplefollowed Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. But the rulers of the Nanda Empire embraced Jainism. Once the Nanda rulers took over the kingdom of Kalinga, they made Pataliputra (Patna Bihar), their capital. Revered Jivasiddhi, the Digambar saint, was adopted as master by Dhana Nanda the last Nanda Samrat. Pataliputra was then known all over the world for being the place of enlightenment of Lord Mahavira and learning. 

                               Lord Mahavira propagated Jainism whose message was asceticism, austerity and non-violence. The Nanda dynasty rulers were also known for their appreciation of writing and art. They offered support to a number of academics and researchers. Panini, the eminent linguist, was born during this era.  The Nanda dynasty kings were great builders too. The majority of the stupas of Rajgir and at other major Hindu religious holy places were constructed during last Nanda ruler. 

                                     The following Nanda dynasty rulers came during a short period of 12 years after greatMahapadma Nanda Smarat ,the destroyer of Kshatriyas. They were Panghupati, Pandhuka, Bhutapala, Govishanaka, Rashtrapala, Kaivarta, Dashasidkhaka, Mahendra, and Dhana Nanda (also known as Argames) (? – c. 321 BC).

                              The Nanda dynasty was over run by the Chandragupta the founder of Maurya Dynasty. Chandragupta Maurya also Nandas son.The Maurya Dynasty ruler ruled over India between 322 BCA to 185 BCE. Chandragupta Maurya who defeated the last Nanda ruler Dhana Nanda also comes from Nanda lineage, since he was the son of 'Mura' who was a concubine to one of the Nanda Kings.  Chandragupta as the founder to little after Ashoka the Great. It was Ashoka the Great, who himself converted into Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread to other parts of Asia. During the Mauryas, the Hinduism took the shape that fundamentally taught the religious principles which are followed even to the present day.                                                            

Mahapadma Nanda Smarat was the founder of a huge  Nanda Dynasty empire and was the first non-Kshatriya ruler of northern India during that  time. Following his extensive regime and demise, the kingdom was assumed by Pandhuka. Subsequently, a succession of rulers arrived and ruled over Magadha. Mahapadma Nanda Smarat shall be long remembered as a great just ruler during whose rule his subjects enjoyed the life benefits with out fear or favour. No foreign invader could dare to cross over to the Magadha territory with an evil eye.

References:- 

1.The Nandas The Greate Barber Rulers Of India written By T.M. DHANARAJU. M.A. 

2. Ancient India, Text Book (Class XI )NCERT 2002

3. Nanda Dynasty: The first Non-Kshatriya Empire that Ruled Magadha
 (http://blog.mapsofindia.com/india/nanda-dynasty-the-first-non-kshatriya-empire-that-ruled-magadha/)


Nanda Rajavanshi's are Nayi brahmin Community Persons(Proofs)

Nanda Rajavansh Proofs (Chandragupta Maurya Nandas Son Proofs) :
నంద రాజ వంశీయుల ఆధారాలు : 
చంద్రగుప్త మౌర్య నంద రాజ కుమారుడు ఆధారాలు : 

1.క్రీ.పూ.4 శతాబ్దం విశాకదత్తుడు రచించిన “ముద్రరాక్షస” గ్రంధం లో క్లుప్తంగా వివరించారు " చంద్రగుప్త మౌర్యనంద వంశీయుల వారసుడే " అని వివరించినారు.(Visakadattas 4th century BC  “Mudrarakshasa” Book) 

2. ఎజెస్ ఆఫ్  నందస్ యండ్ మౌర్యస్ - (రచించిన వారు కే.నీలకంఠ శాస్త్రి)(Ages Of The Nandas and Mauryas – Written by K.A.Neelakanta Sastri).

3.  నందస్ (బార్బర్ రూలర్స్ ఇన్ ఇండియ) - (రచించిన వారు ధనరాజ్ టి.యం). (The Nandas(Barber Rulers In India)- Written by Dhanaraju T.M).

4. భారతదేశ చరిత్ర డిడి.కోసాంబె - ప్రఖ్యతిగాంచిన బౌద్ధమత రచేయిత డిడి.కోసంబెఇతను రాసిన అనేకగ్రంధాలలో కుడా “చంద్రగుప్త మౌర్య నంద వారసుడే “ అని రచించినాడు. (“DD Kosambi” buddhist Writer – India History - DD Kosambi also Wrire his books Chandragupta maurya Nandas Son) 

5. సాక్షి దినపత్రిక లో (తేది: 20-11-2011) ప్రచురించిన ఫ్యామిలీ పెజిలో వచ్చిన ఆర్టికల్ లో కుడా  “ చంద్రగుప్తమౌర్య నంద వారసుడే అని వ్రాసినారు “. (Telugu Popular News Paper "Sakshi" published An Airtcle (Date: 20-11-2011) Chandragupta maurya Nandas son)

6. History Of Ancient india - Radhey Shyam Chaurasia.

7. A History Of India - Romola Thapar

8. "Encyclopaedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh" Written By “Om Gupta”.

9. The Early History of India written by Vincent A. Smith

10. Indian Heritage and Culture written by Dhirendra singh

11.  A History  - written by "John Keay"

12.  Hinduism & Its Military Ethos written by Air Marshal RK Nehra

13. "India Rediscovered: A New Vision of History and Call of the Age Written By Mahesh Vikramasimha.

14. A Brief History of India  written by Alain Daniélou

15.Historical Geography of Madhyapradesh from Early Records written by P. K. Bhattacharyya

16. The Mauryan Polity written by R. Ramachandra Dikshitar.

17. History of the Tamils from the Earliest Times to 600 A.D written by P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar

18. Encyclopaedia of Asian History written by R.C. Majumdar, David P. Barrows 

19. Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History written by J Gordon Melton

20. World history from early times to AD 2000 written by B .V. Rao.

21. Kingship and Community in Early India written by Charle Drekmeier.

22. History of India written by N. Jayapalan.

23. Dharma: Its Early History in Law,Religion and Narrative written by Alf Hiltebeitel.

24. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture written by John Stewart Bowman.

25. Encyclopedia Of Bihar Written by Arunima Kumari.

26. Evolution of educational thought in India Written by Bhanwar Lal Dwivedi.

27. The Making of Miracles in Indian States: AndhraPradesh Written by Arvind Panagariya, M. Govinda Rao.

28. History of India, in Nine Volumes: Vol. II - From the Sixth Written by Vincent A. Smith, A. V. Williams Jackson.

29. Chandragupta Maurya and His Times Written by Radhakumud Mookerji.
(Dhundiraja, the 18th century A D commentator on the Text of Puranas takes Chandragupta Maurya to be the son of Mura who was one of the wives of king Nanda Chandraguptam Nandasyaiva patanyasya Mura-samjanasya putram Mauryanam prathamam).

30. Life in North-eastern India in Pre-Mauryan Times written by Madan Mohan Singh.

31. History of Ancient India Written by Rama Shankar Tripathi.

32. Nanda Mura Village : https://villageinfo.in/bihar/siwan/siswan/nanda-mura.html  : (An Other stroong evidence of Chandragupta Maurya(Mura) our Nandas son."Mura" means Chandragupta Maurya Mothers Name).

33. India's Road to Nationhood: A Political History of the subcontinent Written by Wilhelm von Pochhammer

34. The "Vishnu Purana" informs us that Chandragupta was the son of a Nanda prince and a Hindi: dasi (English: maid) named Mura. The poets Kshmendra and Somadeva call him Purvananda-suta, son of the genuine Nanda, as opposed to Yoga-Nanda, i.e. pseudo-Nanda.

35. India: From Indus Valley Civlization to Mauryas written by Gyan Swarup Gupta (Chandragupta Nandas Son)

36. asoka and his inscriptions volume 1- page 48- written by beni madhab barua..(Chandragupta was son of Nanda by a wife called 'mura')

37. Rambles in Bihar written by Ram gopal singh chaudhari(his mentioned this book chandragupta was bastard, being the son of nanda,from his mistress mura, a woman of the barber caste)

39. The Mahawanso in Roman characters  with the translation Subjoined - Pali Buddhistical Literature.(chandragupta was a member of the same family as Nanda)

40. Legends of Origin of the Castes and Tribes of Eastern India written by G.K.Gish,Shukla Ghosh(chandragupta maurya nandas son)

41. Was Jesus Influenced by Buddhism? written by Dwight Goddard ( A certain low- caste adventurer, Chandra- gupta , said by some to have been the son of a barber)

42. A History of Civilisation in Ancient India : Based on Sanscrit written by Romesh Chunder Dutt(Mahapadma Nanda will bring the whole earth under one umbrella, The commentator says that Chandragupta was the son of Nanda by a wife named Murfi) 

43. optional indian history ancient india - Pratiyogita Darpan Editorial Team ( According to 'Mudrara- kshasa' Chandragupta was the son of Nanda king and is described as 'Virikhals'. It appeareds that dramatist described him as the son of illegitimate wife of low caste)

44. Glorious epoch: Svayambhuva Manu to Shakari Shalivahan, 29000 BC Written by Shripad Dattatraya Kulkarni ,Shri Bhagavan Vedavyasa Itihasa Samshodhana Mandira (Bombay, India) [The references in Sanskrit literature show that Chandragupta was also the son of Dhanananda from his Sudra wife Mura].

45. Indian heritage and culture written by Rao.P R Staff, P.Raghunadha Rao (The Jain tradition represents Chandragupta maurya was a Nanda Son)

46. A Dictionary of Hinduism: Including Its Mythology, Religion Written by Subodh Kapoor ( The Mudraraksasa represents Candragupta as being related to Mahapadma Nanda , and the commentator on the Visnu Purana says that he was a son of Nanda by a woman of low caste named Mura)

47. Annals of the bhandrakar Oriental research institute- Volume 2 (Chandragupta maurya Nandas Son).

48. History of Magadha: from the 6th century B.C. to 12th century written by Kamal Shankar Srivastava ( According to the author of the Mudrarakshasa6 Candragupta was member of the same family as of Nanda (Nandanavya) and Mauraputra. The annotator of the Visnu Purana texts7 makes him the son of Nanda by Mura) 

49. The Poona Orientalist: A Quarterly Journal Devoted to Oriental studies written by Har Dutt Sharma ( we have at least five statements in the Mudraraksasa to the effect that Candragupta was the son of king Nanda)

50. Indian Heritage and Culture written by Rao. P R Staff , P. Raghunadha Rao (According to the puranas, Chandragupta was the son of one of the Nanda kings by a servant maid. The dynasty was named after his maternal grandmother Mura).

51. Justin : Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogu written by Marcus Junianus Justinus , J. C.Yardley,Pat Wheatley (Chandragupta's caste is not specified, but he is linked with the base-born Nandas by, among others, a commentator on the Vishnu- Purana, who says he was the illegitimate son or grandson of king Nandrus)

52. General studies History written by K.Krishna Reddy ( According to the Puranic account, he was the son of the last Nanda king from his Sudra concubine, Mura)

53. Ancient Indian History and Civilization written by Sailendra Nath Sen ( According to the Puranic account, he was the son of the last Nanda king from his Sudra concubine, Mura by name, from whom  was derived the surname Maurya)

54. Essays on Indian Antiquities: Historic, Numismatic, and palaeographic written by James Prinsep, Henry Thoby Prinsep (That the Greeks did send a subsidiary force to the assistance of Chandra- gupta , son of Nanda , Raja of the Prachi)

55. Pictorial Ancient History of the World: From the Earliest written by John Frost(Magadha, known by the name of Mahapadma Nanda , who is either a father or a near relation of Chandra Gupta)

56. A Brief History of Bengal for Diaspora Bangladeshis written by Prof. S. M. Deen(chandragupta maurya 320 BC - 297BC his capital in patiliputra near modern patna.his origin is unclear but some historians claim that he was the son (or grand son) of mura, a wife of a Nanda king. From mura come the name Maurya)

57. 50 Military Leaders Who Changed the World written by William Weir (Chandragupa son of a Nanda prince)

58. Study Package Cds Exam written by Bhardwaj ( Chandragupta as the son of the last Nanda monarch from his Sudra concubine, Mura by name)

59. A Journey Through India' s Past written by Chandra Mauli Mani (According to the Vishnu Purana, Chandragupta was the son of a Shudra Queen Mura, of the Nanda king, which gave the name Maurya)

60.Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal- Volume 3- Asiatic Society of Bengal (That the Greeks did send as a subsidiary force to the assistance of Chandragupta , son of Nanda , Raja of the Prachi)

61. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India) -( That the Greeks did send as a subsidiary force to the assistance of CHANDRAGUPTA , son of NANDA) 

62. Five Years of Theosophy: Mystical, Philosophical, Theosophical written by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, T. Subba Row , Damodar K. Mavalankar (Chandragupta , whose son Nanda).

63. Essays on Indian Antiquities, Historic, Numismatic, and Palaeographic  Written By James Prinsep, Edward Thomas.

64. India: From Indus Valley Civlization to Mauryas  written By Gyan Swarup Gupta (Chandragupta Son of Nanda King)

65. India' s ancient past written by Shankar Goyal (The famous drama Mudra Rakshasa written by Visakhadatta mentions Chandragupta Maurya as Nandanvayah, i.e., 'the scion of the Nanda family'. ln this work Rakshasa, the minister of Nandas, addresses Chandragupta as the son of Nanda Raja)

66. Early History of India written by Bhai Gulshan Rai (In this story Chandra- gupta is represented to be a son of a previous Nanda)

67. Indian Civilization and Culture written by Suhas Chatterjee (Chandra Gupta , the founder of the Maruya empire Purana as also in the drama Mudrarakshasa there are hints of connection by blood between Chandragupta and the Nanda dynasty)

68. The founders of Indus valley civilization and their later history- Naval Viyogi , Indian National Historical Research Council (the mother queen of Chandra Gupta has been said to be belonging to Nanda famil, The commentator here makes the astounding statement that Chandragupta was a son of the Nanda)

69. Journal - Uttar Pradesh Historical Society (that Candragupta was a son of the Nanda king by a low caste woman)

70. A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature written by Friedrich Max Müller (Mahapadma Nanda will bring the whole earth under one umbrella, he will have eight sons, Chandra- gupta's relationship with Nanda is confirmed)

71. Glimpses of Sexual Life in Nanda - Maurya India : Translation of text written by Manomohan Ghosh (Whatever may be the meaning of Maurya" ' the Maurya prince mentioned in the Padma. might well be' Chandragupta himself who according to a late tradition was a son of the last Nanda)

72. The Modern Review written by Ramananda Chatterjee (As Chandra Gupta's mother was-a low caste woman, his half brothers, the legitimate sons of Nanda)

73. The Penguin encyclopedia of classical civilizations written by Arthur Cotterell (Candragupta was of low birth - a son of the last Nanda king by a lowborn woman)

74. The Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Research Institute (The commentator on the Visnu Purana says that Candragupta was the son of Nanda by a wife named Mura).

75. The Nandas(barber rulers In India), The Kalachuri(the greate barber Rulers India)