Monday, 15 August 2016

The Kalachuri Rajavamsa

                                The  Kalachuri King Samrat Bijjala II

Bijjala II (1130–1167 CE) Kannada: ಬಿಜ್ಜಳ II was the Very Powerful and most famous of the southern Royal Kalachuri King.   
Bijjala II Royal Kalachuri scion The first prominent ruler of the Kalachuris was Uchita, who was followed by Asaga, Kannam and Kiriyasaga. However under Bijjala I and his son Kannama, the Kalachuris began to wield considerable political power. However Kannama's son Jogama became an influential feudatory of the Chalukya Vikramaditya VI, who was matrimonially connected to the Kalachuri chief. This trend continued right upto the reign of Jogama's son and successor, Permadi. Even though he was a Mahamandalesvara (feudal lord) he enjoyed considerable clout in the royal circles.
Brahma,the creator of the universe

Permadi’s son Bijjala II (1130-1167 A.D) succeeded his father as the Mahamandalesvara. He realised that under Vikramaditya's successors the Chalukya empire was growing weaker. This encouraged him to declare his independence. The Chikkalagi inscription refers to Bijjala II as "Mahabhujabalachakravarti (literally: the sovereign with tremendous power in his arms).Some historians identify several Kalachuri ruling families in Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, Rajpur (eastern Gujarat) regions of central India. Dr. P. B. Desai, the renowned historian opines that the Kalachuris did not originally belong to Karnataka. On the contrary they had migrated from central India. There they were known as Katachuris, and they ruled over an empire spanning Malwa, Gujarat, Konkan and Maharashtra. However, one of its rulers, Buddharaja, experienced a crushing defeat at hands of the Chalukya king Mangalesa, which pushed this dynasty into oblivion.

    Royal emblem of Kalachurya 

Bijjala/Bijjaladeva was  kalachuri clan chief.This clan was also called as Haihayas, were ancient people. These people were ruling in Eastern Malwa and the neighboring region around 8th century AD. Several branches of this family had settled in different parts of Northern India. The most famous king of this clan was Kokalla - I, who was an imperial power below modern day Madhya Pradesh. He had defeated all major kings in that era around 10th century AD. Bijjala was a federatory chief of the Kalachuri clan. He defeated Jayasimha in 1156 AD and other federatory chiefs who had revolted. He fought successfully with the Cholas, Gangas of Kalinga, the clan Inkyas and the other branch of Kalachuris of Tripuri. It is also said for a very short period he conquered Anga, Vanga, Magadha, Nepala, Turushka and Simhala. By 1157 AD Bijjala assumed imperial titles and a era may be said to have started as Kalachuri revolution now ran its course and Bijjala setup his rule in Chalukya capital Kalyani. Kalyani now is know as Basava kalyan on Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh border . The nearest town is Bidar.

Hero stone with 1160 CE Old Kannada inscription from the rule of Kalachuri King Bijjala in the Kedareshvara temple at Balligavi, Shimoga district, Karnataka state

Bijjala was patronising Jainism, Kolanpaka –80 KM from Hyderabad, (AP) INDIA, was said to be the alternate capital of the Bijjula. This was a very rich city covering an area of fifty Square Kilometers and a nerve center of Jainism, which had imperial patronage of the King/Emperor Bijjaladeva.It is said that  Bijjaladva was known to the Jains as King Kousikadu.  Bijjula’s Prime Minister Basavaraja, a Brahmin and a great devotee of Lord Shiva, the founder of Lingayat sect was patronising Veera Sivaism. Bijjala married Akkamahadevi, the beautiful daughter of Basavaraja and over a period of time, Basavaraja became very powerful and used most of the State's finances to promote and propagate Veera Sivaism, when patronage of Jainism was at it’s peak. There seems to be a confusion about the version of Jain temples and Libraries were destroyed in the battle with Veera Shivam followers which led to the destruction of the magnificent city..... Kolampaku.

Queen Akkamahadevi was the principal Queen of Bijjaladeva. She is the daughter of Veera Shivam devotee and founder Basavaraja. Akkamadevi daughter of ordinary Brahmin devotee of Veera Shivam residing in a village near Mysore. The Jain king Kousigadu/Bijjala saw her and was impressed with her devotion, beauty and intelligence and decided to make her his Queen. He send in his Minister to propose to her parents , knowing very well her parents reluctance to marry their daughter to the King ,who is patronising Jainism. Akkamahadevi knew that King Bijjala  had already decided to marry her forcibly, if her parents reject the proposal had then convinced her parents and went to Kalyani, the imperial capital Of Bijjala along with her parents in a convoy sent by the King Bijjala for the marriage. It is believed that in some course of time she made king agree to propagate Verra Shivam and in that process her father Basavaraja, who was already a very influential  power in the palace became the all powerful Prime Minister. It is believed that the Quuen Akkamahadevi was a very pious lady and spend most of her time in Daiva Puja chanting Mallikarjuna in Anubhava Mandapam in Kalyani City. Later in her life Queen Akkamahadevi is said to have meditated in a cave near Srisailum, Mallikarjuna Swamy Temple and got emerged into Srisailum Mallikarjuna Swamy. Even today Akkamahadevi writings were popular as Shiva Saranams in Karnataka State. There is a statue of her in Srisailum, which receives pujas of the devotees.

During the reign of Bijjala, his Prime Minister Basavaraja tried to spread and strengthen the base of siviate sect among the masses with state exchequer, which also had the Emperor’s blessing because of it’s Reformist Movement (Zeal for reforms like no caste system, all devotee are alike, special solicitude for the emancipation of women from the thralldom of rigid customs, etc) and was instrumental in popularising Siva worship and built temples from Orissa (cuttack) to Alampur in Andhra Pradesh. The famous Alampur temples were rebuilt during this reign and was the man who installed one crore-shiva lingams (Coti Lingalu) in Alampur (AP). This led to a prolonged and fierce battle between followers of Jainism and Siviates, which soon spread to all the regions of Andhra, Karnataka and Maharashtra. The Prime Minster’s followers i.e. the Siviates were victorious after massacring the followers of Jainism and destroying great number of Jain temples, Libraries and Jain Manuscripts. It is said that Bijjala was so disappointed by these events and had retired to the forest, in favour of his son 
Someswara, who came to the throne in 1168 AD.

Someswara is credited with many victories including those against the Cholas, Gangas and Chaulukyas.During his reign Veera Siviasm flourished in full glory and grandeur, giving it’s eight-fold path to eradicate the miseries of it ‘s followers in particular and people in general. The Epic called BASAVAPURANAM was written during this period. This philosophy attracted the masses, who accepted it with open arms and thus the capital city of Bijjula, Kalyani became the nerve center of Veera sivaism.

Someswara died in 1177 AD and his brother Sankana who succeeded him conquered many counties from Bengal to Ceylon. During this period there was lot of confusion about the Imperial Religion and the conflict again broke between Siviates, Jains and Vishanavites, supported by the Commander-in-chief of Army.

Ahavamalla succeeded Sankana in 1180 AD. He was great devotee of Lord SIVA. He gave all the taxes collected from Tumbala, Gogguru and Alampur Provenances in present day Mahabubnagar and Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh (Andhra Pradesh,India) to the presiding Deity of Srisalum i.e. Mallikarjuna Swamy Devasthanam (Endowment Trust) i.e. Lord Siva. The inscription to this effect is in Sanskrit and earliest Telugu at Srisalum temple. Alampur was called Brahmapuri, which was a very important educational center called Brahamapuri Vidhyapeetam. This center received rewards, grants and gifts from various subsequent kings, queens and Emperors. The famous pundits from this center are Trilochanamuninadha and Ekantadesakadi.Details about this are available in English and Telugu books sold by the Srisalum Devasthanam Board at Srisalum Temple. He subsequently lost large portion of Deccan to Chalukya King Taila-III ' s Son Someswara IV.

Ahavamalla still continued to rule small principality and was succeeded by younger brother Singhana in 1183 AD, who later submitted to Chalukyas as his general Barmideva or Brahma deserted and went over to the service of Someswara IV, thus putting an end to Kalachuri power in 1190 AD. After 1190AD,the Empire of Kalayani split into three parts, namely the kingdom of Devagiri founded by Yadavas, the Kingdom of Warangal, governed by Kakatiyas and the Kingdom of Dorasamudra ruled by the Hoysalas.

The Kalachuri Clan (Royal Kalyani Chalukyas)
·         Uchita
·         Asaga
·         Kannam
·         Kiriyasaga
·         Bijjala I
·         Kannama
·         Jogama
·         Permadi
·         Bijjala II (1130–1167): proclaimed independence in 1162.
·         Sovideva (1168–1176)
·         Mallugi --> overthrown by brother Sankama
·         Sankama (1176–1180)
·         Ahavamalla (1180–1183)
·         Singhana (1183–1184)

Proofs :

1.The greate barber rulers In India (The Kalachuris), written by T.M Dhanraj 

Thursday, 21 July 2016

Samrat Mahapadma Nanda - The first king of Akhila Bharata khanda

Nanda Rajavamsa History

Samrat Mahapadma Nanda

Mahapadma Nanda  Nai(barber) by caste established The Nanda Dynasty or Nanda Empire in the territory of Magadha.Nanda Empire was one of the famous Ancient Indian Dynasties. It ruled in India at the time of 4th and 5th century BC. During the peak of its glory, the Nanda Dynasty had its stretch from Punjab to the west to Bengal to the east, and in the distant south upto the Vindhya Mountain Range.

He conquered the dynasties of "Panchalas, Aikshvakus, Haihayas, Kasis, Asmaka, Kalinga, Maithilas, Kuru, and Sursenas and added these provinces to Magadha. Mahapadma Nanda is also refered as Smarat (King with wide territory and acceptance) Ugrasena( Terribly strong) orMahapadmapati ( Most magnanimous Conqueror).

Mahapadma Nanda Was the first king of the Nanda dynasty. He was  also the first Shudra king of Magadha belonging to barber  sub caste of Hindu Religion classification. Nanda Dynasty was established after Pradyota dynasty. Since Sisunga earlier a minister to the last Pradyota dynasty king and people made him the king.  Sisunga  belonged to the line of Bimbisara, so this dynesty is also called as Sisunga Dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda  has been described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas". He  was the son of Mahanandin by Barber caste.

The Indologist F. E. Pargiter dated Nanda's coronation to 382 BCE, and R. K. Mookerji dated it to  be 364 BCE.Mahapadma Nanda established the first greatest North Indian empire having its power centre in Maghada. He vanquished the old dynasties of North by, dethroning all kings.The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BCMahapadma Nanda is recognized as  most powerful  (Chhakervarti samarat) king of the entire land. The collapse of the old Kshatriya dynasties under the rigorous power politics of Mahapadma Nanda, who is explicitly denigrated as the son of a Shudra, and he extended   support to followers of non-Vedic philosophies. But the Vedis philosophers described the rise of Mahapadma Nanda as a mark of Kali Yuga because of their religious hate and narrow mindlessness. He was the ruler of the Nanda dynasty for all but 12 years of the dynasty's 100 years Rule. He is reported to have enjoyed his life span of 88 years.

Mahapadma Nanda, defeated the Panchalas . Panchalas was an ancient region of northern India, which corresponds to the geographical area around the Ganges River and Yamuna River, the upper Gangetic plain in particular. This would encompass the modern-day states of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh , Kasis, Haihayas(Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan), Kalingas (central-easternIndia, which comprised most of the modern state of Odisha, as well as the Andhra region of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh), Asmakas, Kurus, Maithilas, Surasenas and the Vitihotras; to name a few. Due to his ruling qualities and military power he expanded his territory south of the Deccan plains too.

                                             The Nandas are also described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. The Nanda Kings made the collection of taxes methodical, by regularly appointed officials. They had a strong administrative system. Their treasury was continuously supplemented to match the government expenditure. Nandas had large stock of wealth’s. The Nanda kings also built canals and in land water ways to establish an effective irrigation system by digging new canals. 

                                             On this, basis of a typically crop cultivation-oriented agriculture developed. Agriculture infrastructure was developed in a big way. The possibility of an imperial structure based on an essentially agrarian economy began to take firm roots in the Indian mind set.  This encouraged economy to develop on sound footing. This made their subjects prosperous in all fields of life.  

                   They are reported to have developed standered weighing and measuring mechanism. The people enjoyed prosperous life conditions with out any danger from the out side invaders. Even the Great conqueror Alexander the Great (356 –323 BCE), did not dare to cross over present day Beas river to intrude into Nanda kingdom territory when he heard of  the military might stories from the natives. The King Porus had also put up a brave fight against the Alexander army. But when intruding army heard of even mightier Nanda King’s army, they refused to go across Beas river. 
                                  So the bravest barber Chakervarti   Smart  forced the marching Alexander army  stop from further  march so his loot and massacre of Indian masses was put to stop.Alexander’s dreams of conquering whole of India were dashed to ground by the Nanda smarat Dhana Nanda. 

                                      The Nanda King inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. To this purpose they built up a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 war chariots and 3,000 war elephants (at the lowest estimates). According to Plutarch, the Greek biographer the size of the Nanda army was even larger, numbering 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 war chariots, and 6,000 war elephants (294,000 troops ).  

                     Since the  military might of Nandas had spread far and wide so no king including the  intruder Alexander could dare to  invade Nanda territory. There for the Nandas never had the opportunity to see their army up against  even AlexanderNandas proved that preparedness for war is preparedness for peace and hormony. Alexander invaded India at the time of Dhana Nanda, and confined his campaign up to the plains ofPunjab. Alexander’s forces were, frightened by the prospect of facing a militarily powerful enemy and so mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern day Beas River) refusing to march any further. This was the might of the untouchable kings. But alas their religious peers reduced them to be non fighting persons, so the country was enslaved for centuries

                                          The people enjoyed freedom of following the religion of their faith with out any fear. The peoplefollowed Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. But the rulers of the Nanda Empire embraced Jainism. Once the Nanda rulers took over the kingdom of Kalinga, they made Pataliputra (Patna Bihar), their capital. Revered Jivasiddhi, the Digambar saint, was adopted as master by Dhana Nanda the last Nanda Samrat. Pataliputra was then known all over the world for being the place of enlightenment of Lord Mahavira and learning. 

                               Lord Mahavira propagated Jainism whose message was asceticism, austerity and non-violence. The Nanda dynasty rulers were also known for their appreciation of writing and art. They offered support to a number of academics and researchers. Panini, the eminent linguist, was born during this era.  The Nanda dynasty kings were great builders too. The majority of the stupas of Rajgir and at other major Hindu religious holy places were constructed during last Nanda ruler. 

                                     The following Nanda dynasty rulers came during a short period of 12 years after greatMahapadma Nanda Smarat ,the destroyer of Kshatriyas. They were Panghupati, Pandhuka, Bhutapala, Govishanaka, Rashtrapala, Kaivarta, Dashasidkhaka, Mahendra, and Dhana Nanda (also known as Argames) (? – c. 321 BC).

                              The Nanda dynasty was over run by the Chandragupta the founder of Maurya Dynasty. Chandragupta Maurya also Nandas son.The Maurya Dynasty ruler ruled over India between 322 BCA to 185 BCE. Chandragupta Maurya who defeated the last Nanda ruler Dhana Nanda also comes from Nanda lineage, since he was the son of 'Mura' who was a concubine to one of the Nanda Kings.  Chandragupta as the founder to little after Ashoka the Great. It was Ashoka the Great, who himself converted into Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread to other parts of Asia. During the Mauryas, the Hinduism took the shape that fundamentally taught the religious principles which are followed even to the present day.                                                            

Mahapadma Nanda Smarat was the founder of a huge  Nanda Dynasty empire and was the first non-Kshatriya ruler of northern India during that  time. Following his extensive regime and demise, the kingdom was assumed by Pandhuka. Subsequently, a succession of rulers arrived and ruled over Magadha. Mahapadma Nanda Smarat shall be long remembered as a great just ruler during whose rule his subjects enjoyed the life benefits with out fear or favour. No foreign invader could dare to cross over to the Magadha territory with an evil eye.


1.The Nandas The Greate Barber Rulers Of India written By T.M. DHANARAJU. M.A. 

2. Ancient India, Text Book (Class XI )NCERT 2002

3. Nanda Dynasty: The first Non-Kshatriya Empire that Ruled Magadha